Since we’ve been doing tests on Fridays, I think it’s only fair for us to do a PE challenge. We tried some ideas from the internet, but it was a total fail! This one turned out not to be too hard, but it was still funny! 😆
Multiplying by 6 is counting by 6 and knowing where to stop:
6 = 6 x 1 = 6
12 = 6 x 2 = 6 + 6
18 = 6 x 3 = 12 + 6
24 = 6 x 4 = 18 + 6
30 = 6 x 5 = 24 + 6
36 = 6 x 6 = 30 + 6
42 = 6 x 7 = 36 + 6
48 = 6 x 8 = 42 + 6
54 = 6 x 9 = 48 + 6
60 = 6 x 10 = 54 + 6
And here is your multiplication table:
Today we will talk about Earth – our home planet! It’s the 3rd planet from the Sun. Like our two previous planets, it’s terrestrial, meaning it has a rocky surface. Unlike Mercury, but like Venus, it has an atmosphere. Ours is made up of nitrogen and oxygen. Earth has one moon, but that’s a story for another day.
Relative to Venus and Mercury, Earth has a relatively stable temperature on the surface. This is in part because 71% of the surface of our planet is covered by water. Water keeps heat pretty well, but doesn’t trap too much of it causing global warming (also a story for another day).
It takes Earth 23 hours and 53 minutes to spin once around its own axis. That’s how long our actual day is. I bet you thought it was the round 24 hours, didn’t you? Our year is 365.3 days long – that’s how long it takes us to travel all the way around the Sun once. You know how we have 365 days in a year? But this year, we have a ‘leap year’, where February had 29 days, making 2020 have 366 days. That’s to fix the additional hours in every year.
Social Science 👩🎓
Ancient Greece – science
Greeks were great scientists! They made huge progress in science that we use every day:
Math – some great mathematicians lived in Ancient Greece, including Pythagoras, Euclid and Archimedes. Here are some subjects that Greek mathematicians created:
Medicine – they were the first ones to make medicine a separate science from others and Hippocrates is considered father of modern medicine.
Astronomy – they were very good at observing the sky. They created a model of the Solar System (I wonder if theirs looked like the one I have been working on?) and charts of the stars in the sky. They were the first ones to figure out that Earth was spinning around its axis and that planets traveled around the Sun.
In Greek mythology, Prometheus stole fire from the gods and gave it to humans.
Word of the Day ❗
Frontier – a wilderness at the edge of a settled area of a country.
Multiplying by 5 is counting by 5 as many times as the number by which you are multiplying, so:
5 = 5 x 1 = 5
10 = 5 x 2 = 5 + 5
15 = 5 x 3 = 10 + 5
20 = 5 x 4 = 15 + 5
25 = 5 x 5 = 20 + 5
30 = 5 x 6 = 25 + 5
35 = 5 x 7 = 30 + 5
40 = 5 x 8 = 35 + 5
45 = 5 x 9 = 40 + 5
50 = 5 x 10 = 45 + 5
And here is each number multiplied by 5:
5 x 1 = 5
5 x 2 = 10
5 x 3 = 15
5 x 4 = 20
5 x 5 = 25
5 x 6 = 30
5 x 7 = 35
5 x 8 = 40
5 x 9 = 45
5 x 10 = 50
If you look at the multiplication, you can see that you can count off to by how much you have to multiply 5 and that will be your result:
Venus is the second planet from the Sun and it is 67 million miles away from our star. It’s year is 225 Earth days. It’s day is actually longer – it’s 243 Earth days. Venus spins backwards, possibly because it was hit by an asteroid at some point in the past. Venus’ mass is 82% that of Earth.
Venus is the hottest planet in the Solar System, even though it’s not the closest to the Sun. It’s temperature is 850F. Venus’ atmosphere is full of a greenhouse gas called carbon dioxide, which creates a thick cloud around the surface. It traps the heat, making the planet get hotter and hotter.
The surface of Venus is rocky, like that of Mercury and Earth. However, there is no water in there. It’s so hot on this planet that it’s covered by active volcanoes and there are rivers of lava flowing across it.
Venus was named after Roman goddess of love and beauty.
Social Science 👩🎓
Ancient Greece – culture
Ancient Greek culture created ideas which we still use today. Here are some of the most important ones:
Democracy – the Greeks were the first one to come up with the idea of a citizen and that every citizen had a right to participate in making decisions for their country. Back then, being citizen meant being a free, native-born, land-owning man.
Public education – boys went to school starting when they were 7 years old. They didn’t go for many years, but they did learn how to read, write and count.
Philosophy – philosophers today still follow the way Ancient Greeks used to think and quote them frequently.
Theater and literature – Ancient Greeks built wonderful theaters where you could hear everything that was said on stage in the entire theater, even though they didn’t have microphones or any other technology we use now. My mom says she tested it and it still works! Isn’t that awesome? Greeks developed structure of plays that is still used these days. One of the most famous writers in Greece was Homer, who wrote the Odyssey. Greeks used to write and collect books. They even built a great library knows as Library of Alexandria.
Olympic games – the Greeks used to organize the Olympic Games. Athletes competed to see who was the best and it was a tradition that all wars had to stop when the competition was going on.
Oak trees do not produce acorns until they become 50 years old.
Word of the day ❗
Gingerly – in a manner marked by extreme care or delicacy.
Since the weather hasn’t been great, I worked on my core instead of soccer:
Multiplying by 4
Multiplying by 4 is like counting by 4: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40. Now the number you multiply 4 by is which number in order you need to pick. So:
4 = 4 x 1
8 = 4 x 2 = 4 + 4
12 = 4 x 3 = 8 + 4
16 = 4 x 4 = 12 + 4
20 = 4 x 5 = 16 + 4
24 = 4 x 6 = 20 + 4
28 = 4 x 7 = 24 + 4
32 = 4 x 8 = 28 + 4
36 = 4 x 9 = 32 + 4
40 = 4 x 10 = 36 + 4
Now for going the other way: adding each number to itself 4 times:
4 x 1= 4
4 x 2 = 8
4 x 3 = 12
4 x 4 = 16
4 x 5 = 20
4 x 6 = 24
4 x 7 = 28
4 x 8 = 32
4 x 9 = 36
4 x 10 = 40
And here is the multiplication table for 4:
Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System – it would take almost 20 Mercurys to make one Earth. It is the closest one to the Sun – only about 36 million miles away. It takes Mercury only 88 days to go all the way around the Sun once, which means Mercury’s year is 88 Earth days long. It spins slowly and one day there is 59 Earth days long. This means that the dark side has a long time to get cold and the one facing the Sun gets really hot. It can get as cold as -300F and as hot as +800F.
The surface of Mercury is made of hard rocks with a lot of craters caused by asteroids crashing into the planet. It looks a lot like Earth’s moon. Like the Moon and unlike Earth, Mercury doesn’t have an atmosphere – that’s gasses like air that surround the planet.
Mercury was named after Roman god of travelers and their messenger, Mercury. It is the same god that the Greeks called Hermes (look in our today’s social science lesson for more on Hermes).
Social Science 👩🎓
Ancient Greece – religion
The Greeks had a large number of gods, like the Egyptians. They created stories called myths, which explained how the world worked. The gods were complicated characters and had a lot of bad qualities. They fought with each other a lot and messed with humans for their own entertainment. The most important gods were called the Olympians (because they live together on Mount Olympus):
Zeus – god of sky and lightning. He was the leader of the gods
Hera – goddess of marriage and family. She was Zeus’s wife and the queen of the gods
Poseidon – god of ocean, earthquakes and horses (I love horses!). He was Zeus’s and Hades’s brother
Dionysus – god of wine and celebrations
Apollo – god of archery (that’s shooting with bow and arrow), art, light, prophecy (that’s telling the future) and healing
Artemis – twin sister of Apollo, goddess of the hunt, archery and animals
Hermes – god of commerce (that’s buying and selling), travelers and thieves. He was also the messenger of the gods
Athena – goddess of wisdom, defense and war (battle strategy)
Ares – god of war (more on the actual fighting)
Aphrodite – goddess of love and beauty
Hephaestus – god of blacksmiths, craftsmen and fire
Demeter – goddess of seasons and agriculture (that’s growing food).
There is one more key god in Greek mythology that is extremely powerful, but he doesn’t live on Mount Olympus with the others. His name is Hades and he is the god of death and underworld. The reason he doesn’t live with the Olympians is because he needs to be in the underworld.
Next to many other gods, there are also heroes (sometimes called demi-gods). Those are children of a god and a regular human. The most important heroes were:
Hercules – son of Zeus, known for being extremely strong. He fought a lot of monsters in his life. According to mythology, when he died he was made a god.
Achilles – when he was a baby, his mom put him in River Styx (it was river flowing through the underworld and bathing in it would make you immortal – meaning you couldn’t be killed). She held him by his ankle, which was the only part of his body that could get hurt. Achilles was a hero in Trojan war and he was killed when he got shot with an arrow in his ankle.
Orpheus – son of Apollo and an extremely talented musician. The myth said that when his wife, Eurydice died, he went into the underworld to rescue her and used his music to convince Hades to let Eurydice return to life.
And let’s not forget about monsters and other creatures we hear about in stories, usually not realizing they were first imagined by the Greeks:
Centaurs – they had heads and upper bodies of humans attached to a body of a horse
Cyclopes – one-eyed giants
Gorgon – they had snakes instead of hair. Medusa was a gorgon – that’s the lady who would turn people into stone when you looked in her eyes
Griffin – they had a body of a lion, wings and a head of an eagle
Hydra – serpent with multiple heads. If you cut one off, three new ones would grow in its place
Cerberus – three-headed dog who guarded the underworld
Phoenix – fire bird who would die by burning itself and then be reborn from its own ashes
Sirens – unlike what most of us think, they originally had bodies of birds. They sang beautifully and sailors wouldn’t be able to resist approaching sirens’ island, which always ended in sailors’ death
Pegasus – a horse with wings.
Ancient Greeks used to lay on their sides when they ate dinner.
Learning how to multiply by 3 is all about memorizing the numbers. Here they are:
So you are basically counting by 3: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 or:
3 = 3 x 1
6 = 3 x 2 = 3 + 3
9 = 3 x 3 = 6 + 3
12 = 3 x 4 = 9 + 3
15 = 3 x 5 = 12 + 3
18 = 3 x 6 = 15 + 3
21 = 3 x 7 = 18 + 3
24 = 3 x 8 = 21 + 3
27 = 3 x 9 = 24 + 3
30 = 3 x 10 = 27 + 3
We thought that watching a video showing the multiplication may help:
For now, keep repeating multiplying by 0, 1, 2 and 3. We will get back to math exercises on Friday!
The Sun is the star at the center of our solar system (we will talk more about what solar systems are once we go through all the planets) – this means that planets go around it.
The Sun is a dwarf star and has the mass of 333 thousand Earths, while its diameter is 109 times larger than that of our planet. It’s located 93 million miles away from us and that distance is used in astronomy as a measurement unit called Astronomical Unit (au).
The Sun is made of two lightest elements: helium and hydrogen. In the center of our star, gravity is so strong that hydrogen is squeezed so tightly that it transforms into helium in the process called nuclear fusion. That’s what makes the Sun glow. This energy travels to Earth in form of light. All living beings (animals and plants) use it as a source of energy, which allows us to grow and survive. But more on that in the future.
The Sun wasn’t hard to discover for humans – we can see it every day (well, unless it’s cloudy 😉). In the ancient times, it was actually worshiped as a god. Do you remember the name of Egyptian god of the Sun?
Social Science 👩🎓
Ancient Greece – history
Ancient Greece developed on the Peloponnese Peninsula and surrounding islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Currently, that’s where country of Greece is located. Ancient Greece wasn’t really a unified country, it was a number of city-states (that’s like a country) called polis that shared similar culture. The land there is rocky and not great for farming. Ancient Greeks focused more on herding animals and trade. They built many ships and sailing was important to the culture and economy.
History of Ancient Greece has three periods:
Archaic – this is when culture in Greece started to develop, beginning around year 800 BC. The small city-states had their own kings. It actually ended in year 508 BC, when Athens became a democracy.
Classical – historical period that we all think about the most when we talk about Ancient Greece was defined by polis being ran as democracies. They all came together during large wars. The first one was against Persia, which made Greek city-states work together and think of themselves as Greeks. The next one was between largest cities: Athens and Sparta, dividing the country between the two. Athens were focused on culture and science, while Sparta was all about war. This period ended with the death of Alexander the Great. He was king Macedonia. He unified much of Greece and conquered a lot of Europe and Western Asia, including Persia and Egypt.
Hellenistic – during this period, Roman culture was developing and their country was growing in power, while Greece was becoming weaker. Fall of Egypt to Rome is considered to be the ending of Ancient Greece.
Amphibians are species which can live on both water and land.
Word of the day ❗
Era – a period marked by distinctive character.
Activity of the day 📺
Here is the first part of me building my own model of the Solar System with me talking about the Sun:
I think we need to work on stretching, so here is today’s workout:
Multiplying by 2
Today is another day of learning how to multiply! Here is a video to help you remember the multiplication:
And we are adding another row and column to our multiplication table:
And it’s another day without a worksheet 😊. Don’t worry – plenty of practice is coming tomorrow!
Ancient cultures have learned to make paper independently out of various plants.
Egyptians used a plant called papyrus to make papyrus paper. They would use only sticky fibers inside of the stem and weave them together. It created a surface that was something between what today cloth and paper look like. They wrote on it and then rolled it up, creating scrolls.
Chinese used to turn plant fibers into fabric and used that to write on.
These days, we make a lot of our paper of trees. This is why you shouldn’t waste paper – they kill trees to make it! Here are basic steps in making paper out of trees:
Turn wood into a soup called pulp – it’s done either using a machine or chemicals. It’s also bleached, so paper turns out white
The pulp is sprayed onto mesh (it’s like a very fine net) and dried
Once it’s mostly dry, it’s put through heated rollers to get rid of any remaining water and squeezed into sheets of paper
The process for making paper through recycling is similar to when you use trees. You just turn old paper into pulp and then follow the next two steps.
Social Science 👩🎓
Hieroglyphics were used in Ancient Egypt. They are symbols that stood for sounds and words. They were one of the earliest forms of written communication. They were used to write messages on scrolls and to write on walls of temples, graves, monuments and house walls. Over time, the hieroglyphic pictures became letters rather than whole words.
Hieroglyphics were deciphered (that’s a fancy word for learning what each means) using Rosetta Stone. No, not the program people use for learning foreign languages now. The program was named after the real thing. It was a rock tablet with writing all over it. An archaeologist realized that writing on the stone was in three different languages and he knew one of them – it was Ancient Greek. The other was Ancient Egyptian, written in hieroglyphics. It took a lot of hard work, but they were able to figure out what each symbol meant.
Here is our alphabet written out in hieroglyphics:
Our workout this morning is to strengthen your core. That means getting your stomach muscle stronger:
What comes after 0? 1 of course! So today, we will be working on multiplying by 1. It’s only a tiny bit harder than multiplying by zero. Any number times 1 is that number.
Here is your video with me showing you how to multiply by 1:
Here is your multiplication table for today:
Earthquakes are when the whole ground shakes and they are called seismic activity. It happens when the Earth needs to release pressure from tectonic plates pushing against each other. Tectonic plates are kind of like trays on which continents sit and they move very slowly around the planet. Earthquakes usually happen along the fault lines, which is where the tectonic plates touch each other. These events can be of different strength. Some of them, you can’t feel and some are so strong that they can destroy buildings. Seismic activity can cause cracks in land, volcanoes to erupt, landslides (that’s when ground on a hill or a mountain slides down) and tsunamis (that’s a huge wave on the ocean when the movement of the ground causes water to move).
It’s pretty much impossible to have heads-up when an earthquake will happen. Scientists can tell where they are likely to take place and what’s the chance that they will happen. They can’t tell for sure, though, that they will happen in a specific place at a specific time. You usually find out when things around you start shaking. In many ways, advice for what to do is similar to a tornado, except you don’t have time to run to a basement or another room. Get away from windows and cabinets – you don’t want stuff out of cabinets and shelves, like books or dishes, falling on you. Find a place you can hide, like under a table and make sure to cover your head.
Social Science 👩🎓
When you look at a pyramid from a side, it looks like a triangle, but when you look from the top, it’s a square. The ones in Egypt are made of stone and are the same color as the sand around them. The most famous ones are in Giza, but there are some smaller ones around the country.
The pyramids were built as tombs for the pharaohs. Do you remember how I said yesterday that Egyptians believed they needed their bodies after they died? That’s why they needed big tombs like that. Their bodies were turned into mummies and put in sarcophagi (that’s multiple of sarcophagus, which is a fancy coffin). The pyramids had many chambers and were basically huge palaces for the dead pharaohs. They also put inside their treasures and regular objects one may need in regular life. When archaeologists got into the pyramids, they found things like furniture and dishes. Also, the walls were covered by hieroglyphics (more on those tomorrow), which told stories of the pharaohs and the country during their reign. We have learned so much from the pyramids!
Fun fact: do you remember me mentioning Cleopatra, one of the last rulers in Egypt? Less time has passed between the time she lived and today than between the time when the pyramids were build and her birth.
Poison ivy produces a skin irritant know as urushiol, which can cause an allergic reaction like an itchy rash on the exposed skin.
Word of the day ❗
Fatigue – temporary loss of strength and energy from hard work.
As every day, you should do your workout! Here is another soccer practice:
Now that we have talked about what multiplication is, time to get to the first number: 0. Multiplying by zero is super simple! It’s always 0! Think about it this way: when you look at your blocks, how many of them do you need? Zero – meaning none. Then you have zero blocks with dots on them! So it doesn’t matter how many dots are on the blocks 😊
Here is the multiplication table for today:
As we work on our multiplications, I will add the next column and next row until we fill the whole square. Make sure to work hard every day on your lesson, so you don’t have to learn too many at once later!
Since these are all the same, there is no worksheet today. That means no homework 😊 I am sure you are as excited as I am!
Here is an explanation:
Rainbows are the colorful arches you see in the sky after the rain. But have you ever noticed that every once in a while, you can see them on water coming out of a sprinkler? Or in a fountain? That’s because rainbows happen when the light splits up into different colors when it goes through the water. It’s called refraction. Sunlight looks white to us, but it’s actually made up of lights in every color. Different color lights travel differently through water. So when they come out on the other side, they refract, which means they split up. When we draw the rainbow, we show 6 colors:
I’m not sure if you remember that from your art classes, but these are called primary (yellow, red and blue) and secondary (orange, green and purple) colors. In reality, the rainbow shows all the shades in between, but that would be too much work to draw every time! And imagine needing all those crayons!
Did you know that rainbows are actually meant to be circles? The reason we don’t see the whole circle is because it’s usually too close to the ground and we don’t get to see the bottom part:
Social Science 👩🎓
Religion in Ancient Egypt
In ancient Egypt, they had many gods. People believed that these deities (gods) were present in the world and controlled it. Pharaohs were supposed to be almost-gods and they were in charge of the religion. Through prayers, offerings and rituals, they communicated with the deities. The force keeping order in the world was called Ma’at.
Something very important for us to know about religion in ancient Egypt is what they thought about death, especially since tomorrow, we will be writing about the pyramids. Egyptians thought that people needed their bodies in the afterlife, which is what they believed happened to somebody after they died. That’s why they mummified the bodies – that’s the process of making a mummy. I am sure you know what a mummy looks like – they are in so many cartoons!
Egyptians worshiped animals as pets and they took really good care of them. Many of their gods looked like some of the animals, or at least had animal heads.
Here are some of the Egyptian gods:
Aten – god of the Sun disk, who was the one Egyptians worshiped when they tried having religion with only one god
Horus – he looked like a falcon; he was the god of the sky, the sun, kingship, protection, and healing
Isis – goddess of motherhood, protection, and magic
Osiris – god of death and resurrection
Ra – the sun god
Sponges (type of an animal) don’t have hearts.
Word of the day ❗
Symbol – something visible that represents something invisible.
Activity of the day 📺
For our experiment, we are going to make our own rainbows!
We should start our day with some exercises. Here is your workout for today:
Warm with 20 jumping jacks!
Do 10 step ups on a stool with each leg
Do 10 side step ups on a stool with each leg
Do 10 leg lifts
Here is my YouTube video showing what to do – exercise with me!
I think we are ready to talk about multiplication! This is when people say one number times another. But what does that mean?
People call if often ‘times’, like in ‘two times three’ or ‘five times seven’. We write it down as ‘x’. What they really mean is how many times you have to add the same number to itself. For example 2 x 3 is the same as 2 + 2 + 2:
It’s not that bad, is it? Let’s try another one. Can you do 5 x 4? Hopefully, your answer looked something like this:
Although this would have been right, too:
If you don’t believe me – count blue dots on both pictures!
While you are learning to multiply, using pictures with dots or blocks can be super helpful!
Tornadoes look like a tube or a cone made of air, which is spinning really fast. They usually get created during strong thunderstorms. They are very destructive and can even kill people. When a tornado is happening, authorities do their best to warn people ahead of time, but usually you don’t have much time to prepare. You should get under ground, like in a basement or, if that’s not possible, go to the lowest floor available, get in the center, far away from windows. Get under cover of something solid, like a table. Hiding under a mattress or inside a closet is also a good idea. Choose space with low ceilings – your school’s gym would not be a great shelter. If you are outside and too far from buildings, find the lowest, most protected place and put your hands over your head.
Air doesn’t have a color, which means that a tornado could be invisible. However, they spin so fast, that they pick up water vapor, dirt and other objects. You can see that.
Here is how tornadoes form. Cool, dry air collides with moist, warm air. This creates storms. This leads to strong winds and the air rises fast, creating a spinning motion in the air, with air going up and then down in circles. The raising warm air creates an updraft, which causes the air circles to go from hitting the ground to moving parallel to the ground:
Social science 👩🎓
Ancient Egypt– history
This week, our theme for social science will be Ancient Egypt. Today, I will tell you a bit about its history. Tomorrow, we will talk about their religion. On Wednesday, I will tell you about their pyramids (they are awesome! I can’t wait to show you!). On Thursday, I will show you the hieroglyphics (I needed my mom to help me write this long word down), which was their way of writing.
Egypt is located in northern Africa. Most of it is covered by land and river Nile flows through the middle of it. In ancient times, there was a huge empire in there, ruled by the pharaohs. It first started in year 3150 BC and lasted until 20 BC, when Rome conquered Egypt. The river was extremely important to that civilization because it flooded the desert every year and allowed people to grow food. They learned to grow their own grains, which allowed the ancient Egyptians to settle down, instead of moving all the time to find food.
Important people from Egypt:
Cleopatra – she was a ruler of Egypt towards the end of the empire. She had close relationships with many important men of that time and many books and movies were made about her
King Tut – teenage pharaoh, mostly known because his tomb survived until our times
Queen Hatshepsut – back then, women weren’t really allowed to rule. Her husband died before her and her son became the pharaoh. The son was pretty young, so Queen Hatshepsut took care of ruling for him. She ended up staying in charge of running the country. She increased trade with neighboring empires
King Menes – originally, Egypt was divided into two parts: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. He unified the two countries and built its capital in Memphis. He was the first king of Egypt
Nefertiti – she was wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten and they ruled together, which was unusual – both because people didn’t share power back then and because women were not supposed to be in charge. They changed religion of ancient Egypt to worship only one god: Aten, god of the Sun
Ramses II – he was a great ruler and make the country rich and safe
A system of mathematics
Practical and effective medicine
Irrigation system – that’s how they delivered water from the river to their crops. It was a system of paths for water to go
Agriculture – science that helps with crops
Trivia of the day ❓
Mount Everest in the Himalayas is the tallest mountain in the world.